Oil palm Date palm 0.5 0 Kenaf Jute Hemp 3.1 Comparisons Based on Single-Evaluation Criterion (SEC) 3.1.1 Comparison Based on a Single Physical Evaluation Criterion The densities of many types of natural fibers are listed for comparison in Fig. 7. It is obvious that the density of the date palm fibers is the smallest among other types bath sponge clicks. This encourages the manufacturers to consider the date palm fibers for light appli- cations as in automobile and aerospace industries. Fig. 7 also shows the similarity in densities of jute, kenaf, and hemp. Meaning, these three types are holding the same priorities regarding this characteristic.
Although the date palm is found superior over other types of fibers regarding this SEC, considering other characteristics may lead to different conclusions bath pouf set. 3.1.2 Comparison Based on a Single Economic Evaluation Criterion A comparison regarding another characteristic is introduced in Fig. 8 where the cost ratio of different types of fibers is illustrated (AL-Oqla et al shower news report. 2014b). The cost of the date palm fibers is the cheapest among all other considered fibers. Hence, this SEC adds more competencies to the date palm fibers. In addition, a variation in cost is obvious between other fibers. Therefore, this SEC delivers more information that will be helpful in evaluating the fibers. However, this criterion alone cannot lead to an appropriate decision in the fibers’ evaluation and selection for the NFCs. In other words, other characteristics need to be considered before delivering the realistic results (AL-Oqla et al. 2015a, c, e, 2016a, b). These characteristics can be studied in separate (using many SECs) or together (using combined evaluation criteria). 280 F. M. AL-Oqla.
3.1.3 Comparison Based on a Single Mechanical Evaluation Criterion Another SEC is conducted for the fibers regarding their tensile strength as depicted in Fig. 9 (AL-Oqla et al. 2014b). It is very obvious the wide variations among the different types of fibers regarding this mechanical property loofah back scrubber. The tensile strength for jute, kenaf, and hemp fibers exceeds 500 MPa, whereas for coir, date palm, and oil palm fibers it is less than 200 MPa. Regarding this criterion, hemp is the most favorite type vileda shower sponge, and fibers as date palm are not recommended. It is clear that this SEC leads to different decision in fiber evaluation Fig. 9 Tensile strength of Coir natural fibers 600 500 400 Oil palm 300 Date palm 200 100 0 Kenaf Jute Hemp Evaluation and Comparison of Date Palm Fibers … 281 500.00 ength )
The relative performance of the tensile strength property considering MCC 3 CEMCEST Method The behavior of the natural bio-composites depends on their inherent constituents. In current industry, limited criteria are available concerning the agro waste natural fibers. A simple and an efficient technique developed by (AL-Oqla et al. 2014b) called combined multi-criteria evaluation stage technique (CMCEST) can be adopted to improve the evaluation and selection processes of the agro waste natural fibers for NFCs. The standards influencing the evaluation process of the agro waste fibers are integrated and separated into order stages: single-evaluation-criterion (SEC), combined-double-evaluation-criterion (CDEC), combined-triple-evaluation- criterion (CTEC), etc .
Such stages are combined according to the mechanical, physical, and economic characteristics of the fibers. They can be extended further to include other characteristics. The schematic illustration of the methodology is illustrated in Fig. 6. The efficiency of this method (CMCEST) is demonstrated by investigating fibers of coir bath puff, date palm, oil palm, kenaf, jute, and hemp, simultaneously. The evaluation and selection of the proper type of fibers for the polymeric composites will be more precise and reasonable as more helpful information will be revealed using this combined method.
The CMCEST method is able to scope new types of natural fibers with excellent potential for NFCs. It can also provide more information on the capabilities of the available fibers body puff on a stick. Besides, the CMCEST method can guide to better practice regarding the management of the agro waste. This combined technique revealed that date palm fibers are very promising due to the very good characteristics obtained by CTEC. These fibers provide cheap, reasonable, and green alternatives to the conventional materials for different applications. 278 F. M. AL-Oqla Fig. 6 The schematic illustration of the CEMCEST methodology (AL-Oqla et al steri spray shower net worth. 2014b) Evaluation and Comparison of Date Palm Fibers … 279 Fig. 7 Densities of natural Coir fibers 1.5
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